Saturday, 29 September 2018

Obesity affects the cardiovascular system in multiple ways. Obese individuals have an increased total blood volume to meet the perfusion needs of the increased adipose tissue. Cardiac and stroke work indices remain normal in normotensive obese individuals. The increase in cardiac output is also accompanied by a decrease in systemic vascular resistance in normotensive obese individuals. Because of increased LV workload, oxygen consumption is also increased; the oxygen consumption increases linearly with the increase in body weight. 

Health service use and medical costs associated with obesity and related diseases have risen dramatically and are expected to continue to rise. Besides an altered metabolic profile, a variety of adaptations/alterations in cardiac structure and function occur in the individual as adipose tissue accumulates in excess amounts, even in the absence of comorbidities. Hence, obesity may affect the heart through its influence on known risk factors such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, glucose intolerance, inflammatory markers, obstructive sleep apnea/hypoventilation, and the prothrombotic state, in addition to as-yet-unrecognized mechanisms.
On the whole, overweight and obesity predispose to or are associated with numerous cardiac complications such as coronary heart disease, heart failure. Currently, nearly 70% of adults are classified as either overweight or obese as compared with fewer than 40% just 40 years ago. One can argue about the impact of overweight and mild obesity on overall prognosis particularly without accounting for levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (fitness). Nevertheless, very recent high-profile data have suggested obesity may account for nearly 20% of overall mortality.

Obesity can interfere with this process by contributing to cardiovascular disease risk factors such as high blood pressure and diabetes. However, it also can harm the heart muscle more directly.  When a person is obese, that person’s volume of circulating blood goes up. This means that the heart has to pump a greater volume of blood with each heartbeat, which puts strain on the heart over time. Additionally, the heartbeat is governed by a series of electrical impulses in the heart muscle. Obesity certainly increases total blood volume, stroke volume, and cardiac output, so typically, systemic vascular resistance in obesity is reduced for any given level of blood pressure. 
Although most of the increases in cardiac output in obesity are due to high stroke volume (because heart rate is typically not increased), occasionally, heart rate may be slightly increased as a result of increased activation of the sympathetic nervous system. obesity is often shifted to the left as a result of increases in filling pressure and volume, which increases CV work, also leading to left ventricular (LV) changes with dilation and LV hypertrophy. The good news is that even modest weight loss can reduce cardiovascular risk factors and improve heart health. Anyone who wishes to begin a weight loss program should discuss options with his or her physician.

     Obesity and Coronary Heart Disease
     Cardiovascular Impact Adipose Tissue
     Congestive Heart Failure
     Treatment of Obesity and Heart Disease
     Weight Control Reduce heart disease
     Heart Disease
     Obesity and risk of chronic diseases development
    Obesity, Asthma & Allergies: the Inflammatory Connection

Abstract Submission:


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